1. We live in a time in which we are confronted with difficult questions concerning the destiny of the world, the future of the human race. Those questions are related in one way or another to the survival of nations, to man’s life and development. Many countries face similar social, economic and political problems and consequently have adopted similar legal solutions. Some areas of the law such as intellectual property and human rights, are particularly concerned with developing laws which are valid internationally. With more international business and travel and a growing awareness that many socio-economic and environment problems need global solutions, the future of the world of law appears to be one of internationalization.
2. There are two main kinds of international law: private and public. The former concerns the role of foreign laws within a particular country, while public international law deals with relations between states. International law is not new. Nations have always made political and economic treaties with each other. Nevertheless, most international law has been created in the twentieth century.
3. Among the most important international issues nowadays is the problem of elimination from the life of society of war as a means of settling disputes. All countries must work out universally recognized principles of peaceful coexistence of states with different socio-economic systems. This approach is based on the realization that today it is no longer possible to win the arms race, just as it is impossible to win in a nuclear war. The level of armaments stockpiled by all the opposing parties puts them all at the equal risk of being annihilated.
4. International humanitarian issues also include international legal settlement of armed conflicts and protection of their victims. In pursuing this policy, the international community has worked out a number of conventions and other legal instruments.
5. Vital international humanitarian issues include such global problems as hunger, poverty, underdevelopment and economic crises. It is common knowledge that more than 500 million people in the world are suffering from malnutrition because of insufficient production of food and its unequal distribution. According to statistics, every day the world spends $3,000,000,000 on the senseless arms race, while at the same time every day 40,000 children die of hunger and preventable diseases, for every 100,000 of the world’s population there are as many as 566 soldiers and only 86 doctors; the cost of one modern nuclear bomber is more than is needed to vaccinate all the new-born babies in the world. Such problems can also be resolved only through the mechanism of international legal regulation.
6. Man’s tremendous technological progress has created the need for all countries to fight for survival in the sphere of ecology. It has been calculated that today the world economy releases into the atmosphere an annual 200 million tons of carbon monoxide; more than 50 million tons of hydrocarbons, 120 million tons of ashes, and I50 million tons of sulphur dioxide. The latter get back at us in the form of acid rain which is gradually destroying the forests in Europe. Other problems have also assumed disastrous proportions. They demand urgent solution and concerted action.
7. Another group of international humanitarian issues is the need to combat disease, drug addiction and drug trafficking. Health protection today is undeniably an international humanitarian problem and can be resolved only through international cooperation.
8. Finally, another international humanitarian problem is combating international terrorism. Terrorism not only takes the lives of innocent people but destabilizes international relations. It is a gross violation of human rights.
9. International humanitarian problems can be resolved only on the basis of universally accepted binding principles and rules of contemporary international law.
10. Based on the principles of state sovereignty, territorial integrity of states, peaceful settlements of disputes, non-interference in internal affairs, respect of human rights and basic freedoms, self determination of nations and other principles, international law performs a stabilising function in the system of international relations today. Its principles and rules created by the states themselves contribute to the normalization of relations between them, place these relations within a definite framework for the mutual benefit of the parties.
11. Contemporary international law constantly develops. Its general democratic principles are concretised and filled with a new progressive content. New principles and norms take shape. The number of treaties is rapidly increasing. International legal regulation extends to new spheres of international relations.
2. Выпишите из текста английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений: мирное сосуществование; территориальная целостность; устранение войны; урегулирование международных конфликтов; гонка вооружений; осуществлять политику; незаконны оборот наркотиков; нарушение прав человека; взаимная выгода; сторона (договора); договор; обязательные принципы и правила.
3. Найдите в тексте и выпишите 3 предложения, содержащие инфинитив. Определите формы и функции инфинитива. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
4. Найдите в тексте и выпишите 3 предложения, содержащие причастие. Определите формы и функции причастий. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
5. Найдите в тексте и выпишите 3 предложения, содержащие герундий. Определите формы и функции герундия. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
6. Переведите письменно 1, 2, 9, 10, 11 абзацы.
7. Напишите аннотацию к тексту, используя следующие клишированные словосочетания (3-5 предложений): the precis deals with …; the abstract is devoted to …; the work is concerned with … (bears on …, gives explanation of …, is intended to demonstrate certain phenomena, is designed to provide some information about …); the subject of the paper under review is …; the author touches upon the problem of …; … is (are) described; special attention is given (paid) to …; the chief aim (main purpose) of the work is …; the main result of the work is … (that it has given a clue to …).
8. Составьте свое жизнеописание (C.V.), используя образец на стр. 29.